DESCRIPTION OF CONDITIONS
Arches of the foot are formed by the bones of the foot, namely the tarsals and metatarsals. There are three arches called the medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal, and the transverse arch. The arch is present normally to provide shape to your feet and improving distribution of weight. Your arch is normal if the medial portion of your foot impression is halfway above the ground.
Also called as Pes cavus. It can be congenital, hereditary or due to any neurological conditions like polio, cerebral palsy, etc. The higher medial longitudinal arch of the plantar surface results in increased pressure on the ball of the great toe and the heel. People with a high arch are likely to experience pain and instability. Supportive footwear, soft insoles, braces or orthosis helps in the redistribution of pressure and relieve pain.
Also called as flat feet or pes planus. It can be congenital or acquired. It is commonly observed in children who fail to develop arches with age. It is also seen in adults as a result of the aging process. Flat feet are of two types, flexible and rigid. Flexible flat feet are those which are flat while loading the foot and go back to normal when the load is removed. Rigid flat feet are those in which the arch is absent in both loaded and unloaded positions. Foot pain, instability, and difficulty in walking are few problems faced by people with a low arch. Plantar fasciitis is also a common problem faced by people with flat feet. Supportive footwear and insoles which are firm are have proved to be useful in people with flat feel.
Heel pain and spurs
Heel pain can be due to increased strain on muscles, ligaments and other supporting structures of the foot. It can be a result of bony outgrowth on the calcaneal tuberosity also known as a heel spur. With repetitive low-level stress over the Achilles tendon the tendon microtear develops over the insertion area at the calcaneal tuberosity. This microtear overtime heal with new bone formation, called heel spur. The spur has rough edges and on weight-bearing and loading caused impingement of the soft-tissue leading to pain.